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การนอนหลับที่ดี - good sleep

Sleep quality is important. Why?

Why Sleep is important?

Sleep is a complex process related to normalizing the body because sleep is important for the body’s processes, including the transformation of short-term memories into long-term memories (Memory Consolidation). People who have problems with insufficient sleeping or less sleeping, There may be health problems that affect the body and emotional state.

Generally, sleep is influenced by the circadian rhythms, which are controlled by brain neurons. Brain neurons respond to light, temperature, and other signals, including the body’s life clock, which helps to normalize the sleep-wake cycle. If the cycle is disturbed, it can result in feeling drowsy or waking up at the wrong time. For example, people who have to travel across time zones often experience jet lag. It takes several days to adjust the life clock to a different time zone than the one you are used to, depending on how much the distance between the two time zones is different, and how each organ system recovers differently.

คุณภาพ การนอน - Sleep quality

How many stages of sleep are there?

Mainly, we humans have two stages of our own sleep cycle:

1. Non-Rapid Eye Sleep is a period of shallow to deep sleep, which can be divided into 3 stages as follows: 

        🔹 Stage 1: Sleepiness: This is the period of sleepiness, which is the transition from waking to sleeping, with a duration of about 10-15 minutes. This 7stage the brain begins to work more slowly. 

        🔹 Stage 2: Falling asleep: This is the period of falling asleep that we call light sleep or semi-awakening, which is the seam between the onset of sleep and deep sleep. At this stage, our heart starts to slow down. The body temperature drops slightly. The advantage of sleep in this stage is that it stimulates short-term memories and improves concentration.

         🔹 Stage 3: Deep Sleep: This is the period from 10:00 p.m. to 1:30 a.m. If someone sleeps deeply during this period, it will be very good for the body because the body will secrete Growth Hormones which will help repair the worn parts of the body.

   2. Rapid Eye Movement is the period of sleep, when the function of various muscles cease, except for the diaphragm, visceral muscles, eye muscles, and heart. This cycle is one that causes us to dream, which usually occurs in the early morning. Sleeping during a dream is a brain activity that works similarly to when we wake up, where there is rapid eye movement. This is a time when we may be able to dream more than others. It can create imagination and permanent learning for humans.

 

Benefits of getting enough sleep

1.Improves attention, concentration, learning and making memories

Getting enough sleep has a positive effect on the brain in terms of learning processes and storing memory in an orderly manner. It prepares for learning new things, and also results in increased concentration. A clear brain enables analytical thinking,  makes creative decisions and solves problems.

2. Mood improvement

A good night’s sleep will help ensure that the body is well rested. It reduces stress and can control emotions better.

3. A healthier heart

Sleep deprivation or poor sleep quality (from disturbance) has an impact on increasing the incidence of hypertension. Enlarged heart Arrhythmias, including inflammation of blood vessels, are risk factors for ischemic heart disease.

Usually during sleep time, the heart enters a state of repair and is at rest. Therefore, the heart rate and blood pressure are lower than normal.

4. Maintaining a healthy weight and regulating blood sugar

A good night’s sleep will help reduce hunger better. As well as having good bedtime hygiene, it will help you not stay awake too late, which may be the reason for eating late at night. This is when there is poor sleep.     

  • Leptin is a hormone related to hunger control.
  • Ghrelin is a hormone that regulates satiety.
  • Insulin, a hormone that controls sugar level, may be disturbed. 

This will result in more difficulty in weight control, causing overweight, obesity, or an increased risk of diabetes.

5. Strengthens immunity:

Good sleep helps strengthen immunity. Adjust the body condition to get enough rest in order to be ready to deal in a timely manner with any infectious conditions that enter the body.

6. Helps with good mood
Sleep is related to mood and mental health.

7. Enhance sexual pleasure

การนอนหลับ อย่างเพียงพอ - getting enough sleep

How does insomnia or sleep deprivation negatively affect health?

Insomnia or lack of sleep or insufficient rest will cause suffering from various health conditions and negative effects as follows:

  • It affects the thought process by decreasing alertness levels, decreasing the ability to reason, affecting problem-solving skills, and concentration doing things. As a result, it is not possible to learn effectively. 
  • It leads to many health problems. People who only sleep a little are at risk of getting sick with various diseases, including :
    • Heart attack
    • Cardiovascular diseases
    • Heart failure Arrhythmia
    • High blood pressure
    • Hypertension
    • Stroke
    • Diabetes.
  • Decreased sexual desire. Less sleep results in a decrease in sex drive and interest in sex because of a decrease in testosterone. 
  • Cause depression in people who sleep little or have sleep-related health problems. Depression can occur.
  • People who have not slept for 2-3 nights in a row often have withered skin and swollen eyes.
    • Cortisol, a stress hormone, breaks down collagen and proteins that help smooth and firm skin.
    • Less growth hormone, which helps to grow and increase height at a young age, as well as increase muscle mass, thicken skin, and strengthen bones as you age.
  • Forgetfulness. Sleep plays an important role in memory.
  • Weight gain. Sleep deprivation may be related to hunger. Increased gastric juice and obesity because those who sleep less will have less
    • Leptin, a chemical that supresses hunger to keep you feeling full.
    • It also has high levels of the hormone ghrelin, which stimulates hunger, and insufficient sleep also promotes a desire for foods high in fat and carbohydrates.
  • Affects decision-making : Because it is not possible to accurately assess the overall situation, decisions to react poorly can result. 
  • Decreased reproductive hormones : Due to sleep deprivation, less reproductive hormones are secreted, and as a result, it is difficult to have children.
  • Risk of hallucinations, especially in patients with narcolepsy or systemic lupus erythematosus.
  • This can cause accidents because those who are sleep-deprived or who sleep less will be sleepy. They react slower to what happens, and as a result, may have an accident or become injured.

In addition to having a negative impact on the body, it also has a negative effect on the mind, making people easily irritable, or in some cases, depressed and having trouble controlling their emotions.

Tips for a Happy and Healthy Sleep

  1. Change your sleep habits by setting a bedtime and waking up time and follow it to improve the quality sleep and provide 7-9 hours of sleep.
  2. If you are used to sleeping during the day, you should not sleep more than 45 minutes at a time because it may result in insomnia at night.
  3. Avoid risk factors that can cause insomnia. Avoid drinking alcoholic beverages or smoking. If you do, you should cease drinking or smoking at least 4 hours before going to bed.
  4. Avoid drinking caffeinated drinks such as tea and coffee. If you want to drink,you should drink it at least 6 hours before bedtime.
  5. Avoid eating spicy foods or sweets before bedtime. If you eat them it, you should stop at least 4 hours before bedtime. A snack such as drinking warm milk before bed is acceptable.
  6. Exercise regularly. Especially exercising in the evening will make you sleep soundly and is an effective sleep that is beneficial to health.
  7. Adjust the bedroom environment to be easily ventilated and set the temperature in the bedroom appropriately.
  8. Turn off noise, refrain from using all communication tools, and reduce lighting as much as possible.
  9. Use the bedroom or bed for relaxation only. Avoid bringing work to work in bed or having a TV installed in the bedroom.
  10. If you have severe snoring that causes you to wake up suddenly or experience sleep apnea, you should see a doctor.

For working adults, 7-8 hours of sleep is considered sufficient. Sleeping more than that can result in poor-quality sleep because your body recognizes that the required hours have been met, causing you to sleep lightly and wake up frequently, preventing deep sleep. This happens because the body has already stored enough energy. It’s like charging a mobile phone battery; you shouldn’t leave it charging overnight. The same principle applies to sleep, as the body becomes alert instead.

If you have sleep problems, you can identify the cause.
<< Click here to view Insomnia Evaluation Program >>

Reference :

  1. Thitima Narongsak, Thitima Sanguan Vichaikul, and Worapong Trisitvanich. Journal of the Somdet Chao Phraya Institute of Psychiatry, 14(2), 69-85.
  2. Vibhawan Chaum (2019). Health promotion based on the issue of rest and sleep. Concepts and theories related to sleep rest. Teaching Materials for NUR60-102 Health Promotion and Epidemiology, Nakhon Si Province: School of Nursing, Walailak University.
  3. Stock AA, Lee S, Nahmod NG, Chang AM. Effects of sleep extension on sleep duration, sleepiness, and blood pressure in college students. Sleep Health. 2020;6(1):32–39. ‘
  4. Henst RHP, Pienaar PR, Roden LC, Rae DE. The effects of sleep extension on cardiometabolic risk factors: A systematic review. J Sleep Res. 2019;28(6):e12865.
  5. Watson NF, Badr MS, Belenky G, et al.. Recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult: a joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society. J Clin Sleep Med. 2015;11(6):591–592.

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