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โรค หลอดเลือดสมองตีบตัน - Ischemic stroke

Ischemic stroke

What is Ischemic stroke?

         An Ischemic Stroke is caused by bleeding in the brain, or is a stroke that prevents blood from reaching the brain. This causes a lack of oxygen to brain cells which results in brain death. The patient needs to see a doctor immediately. Urgent treatment is very important because it reduces the degree of brain death, reduces other complications, and can prevent disability.

There are 3 types of strokes.

  1. Cerebral artery narrowing or blockage (Ischemic stroke) Ischemic stroke is common in 85% of strokes.

  2. Haemorrhagic stroke is found in about 15% of strokes.

  3. Transient Ischemic Attack (in some patients) (TIA)

         A momentary ischemic stroke (TIA) is a stroke, but it doesn’t last long (less than 24 hours) and then improves on its own. The cause of a TIA is that the brain does not have enough blood supply for a temporary period of time. Most symptoms last 5-15 minutes and then improve on their own.

          However, the patient should see a doctor immediately to distinguish between a stroke and a transient ischemic stroke.

หลอดเลือดสองตีบตัน - Ischemic stroke

Causes of stroke

  • high blood pressure
  • heart disease
  • obesity
  • diabetes
  • hyperlipidaemia
  • smoking and drinking alcohol
  • lack of physical activity

Symptoms of stroke :

  • Weakness in the face, loss of ability to control the face causing the corners of the mouth to fall, or the mouth to become crooked.
  • Numbness, weakness in one side of the arms and legs, sudden loss of ability to walk. Inability to stabilize.
  • Confusion, loss of ability to speak. Can’t think of words.
  • Vision problems such as double vision and blurred vision.
  • Severe headache.

When it is thought that you are facing a stroke, patients and relatives should adhere to the following "FAST" practices.

  • F – Face : Observe the face while smiling, whether the corners of the mouth are falling or the mouth is crooked while smiling.
  • A – Arms : Observe the ability to lift both arms, whether they can be lifted at the same height or if one of the arms falls or there is no arm lift.
  • S – Speech : Ask simple questions that patients are likely to answer. Listen to the patient’s speech to see if they can speak clearly or are confused in answering questions.
  • T – Time : If any of these symptoms occur, seek medical attention immediately.

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Factors that increase risk :

  • Uncontrolled hypertension
  • Excessive anticoagulant treatment
  • Cerebral aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation
  • History of injury accident
  • Abnormal protein deposits in the walls of blood vessels (cerebral amyloidosis)
  • Risk factors related to lifestyle habits:
  • Obesity: Eating foods that are high in fat and high in sodium such as salty foods, Ready-to-eat foods, processed foods
  • Smoking or continuous exposure to tobacco smoke
  • Drinking alcohol
  • Substance abuse

Congenital diseases and disorders of blood vessels that supply the brain.

  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol fat (LDL High)
  • Diabetes
  • Sleep apnoea
  • Heart disease such as atrial fibrillation, heart failure, infective endocarditis
  • Severe carotid or vertebral stenosis
  • Polycythaemia vera or essential thrombocytosis
  • Thrombophilia
  • Congenital vascular diseases such as Moyamoya, Cerebral autosomal dominant and subcortical leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)
  • Carotid or vertebral artery dissection

Other factors that may increase the risk of stroke:

  • Age — Seniors aged 55 or older are at higher risk of developing the disease than young people.
  • Ethnicity— African-Americans are at a higher risk of stroke than other races.
  • Gender — Males are at higher risk than females for stroke, but females tend to stroke as they age, and stroke mortality rates are higher among females than males.
  • Family members with a history of stroke
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Today, we can all take care of our health to prevent getting sick with ischemic stroke, and know before treatment with regular health check-ups at least annually by blood test/health check-up.

Coronary artery disease and stroke risk check-up program (details)

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