SLE (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus) – Autoimmune disease
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a disease whose cause has not yet been identified, but there are indications of illness in multiple organs with unknown causes. There may be indications for an autoimmune disease SLE.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a disease caused by a malfunction of the immune system. A person’s immune system damages the tissues inside their own body causing inflammation and can cause organ abnormalities throughout the body, such as:
- Red skin rash
- Inflammation of tissues
- Inflammation of the kidneys
- And nerve inflammation, etc.
If you suffer from this disease, the body will produce a protein called Antinuclear Antibody (ANA), allowing doctors to diagnose the disease clearly.
The cause of this disease is not yet known. But researchers believe that it is caused by a combination of several reasons, such as
- Environmental factors such as sunlight (ultraviolet rays) and stress.
- Infection with viruses or other germs.
- Use of certain drugs such as methyldopa, procainamide, hydralazine, isoniazid, chlorpromazine.
- Hormonal changes
- Gender: Found more in females than males.
- Age: Mostly found between the ages of 15 and 45 years.
- Ethnicity: More common in African Americans and Asians.
- There are also other contributing factors related to the development of the disease, such as heredity (there may be some genetic materials associated with autoimmune diseases).
- And factors that trigger the disease to worsen include infections within the body, sunlight, etc.
- Have arthritis symptoms, joint pain, and swollen joints.
- Fever, fatigue
- A red rash appears on skin exposed to sunlight.
- Red rash on the face. Nose and cheek area (butterfly shape)
- Hair loss
- Chronic dry eyes or dry mouth.
- Inflammation occurs in various organs such as kidney inflammation, meninges, pleura, pericarditis.
- Anaemia from leukopenia may be seen. or low platelets
Complications from autoimmune diseases
Autoimmune illness can affect patients both in the short and long term, but receiving the right treatment in a timely manner will help reduce the severity of the disease and mitigate damage to other organs. Timely treatment is not provided. The severity of the disease can escalate to death.
Precautions for patients with autoimmune diseases
- Get enough sleep
- Avoid sun exposure.
- Reduce and avoid infection by eating clean, hygienic food.
- Avoid fermented or processed foods.
Diagnosis of autoimmune diseases
- Take a family history together with a thorough physical examination. As a result, physical examination alone is not sufficient for diagnosis.
Pathological biopsy results such as skin biopsy or kidney biopsy
- Blood test to assess inflammation in the body, such as CRP or ESR
- Self-immune testing such as ANA (antinuclear antibody), Anti-dsDNA, Antiphospholipid antibody, and Anti-Sm (Anti Smith) antibody, etc.
Examination to monitor damage in other organs, such as kidney monitoring with BUN, Creatinine and eGFR
At present, there is no cure for the symptoms of the disease. Symptoms of the disease can be alleviated in the following ways:
- Symptomatic treatment, such as the use of painkillers in NSAIDs
- Use immunosuppressants such as corticosteroids to control symptoms of the disease in case the disease shows severe symptoms.
- Prevent and mitigate damage to other organs
- “Diagnosing and Treating Lupus,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 27 June 2022. [Online]. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/lupus/basics/diagnosing.htm [Accessed 10 September 2023].
- “Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE),” Division of Population Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 5 July 2022. [Online]. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/lupus/facts/detailed.html #diagnose. [Accessed 10 September 2023].
- Pediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organization, 2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.printo.it/pediatric-rheumatology/TH/info/3/ SLE [Accessed 11 September 2023].